Omega Fields

  • Protein Nutrition V: Broodmares

    Written By Dr. Kris Hiney

    This month we will continue our protein nutrition series with the classes of horses having the most demanding protein needs: the broodmares. It would make sense that this group of horses is the most sensitive to changes in protein nutrition, as they are continually supplying nutrients for the growing fetus or foal. Shortchange your mare and you may be short changing your future generation. But let’s take a look at what these animals need, so that we can avoid any potential pitfalls in our feeding strategies.
    Gestation
    Before we start feeding a mare for gestation, we at least need to get her pregnant first. Therefore proper nutrition of the broodmare does start before conception. As long as the mare is fed adequate amounts of protein (no higher than required by a maintenance horse) there should be no nutritionally related reproductive issues. However, mares which are deficient in protein are slower to begin cycling normally and have a higher rate of early loss of pregnancy. Short changing the mare on the feed bill will definitely not save money in the long run. Always begin the breeding season with a proper feeding program for optimal results.
     After the mare has conceived, her early pregnancy requirements are not much different from when she was open. Just like with her energy needs, her changes in protein requirements are really quite minimal at the beginning of her pregnancy. As the rate of growth of her developing fetus increases, she must have a greater supply of amino acids in her diet. Looking at Table 1, you can see that the greatest increase in her protein requirements occurs in the last two months of pregnancy. Table 2 places these daily requirements into a simpler expression of the total percent protein that your mare will need depending on the amount of feed she is consuming.  Just as you can imagine, the more the mare consumes, the lower the total percentage of crude protein needed in the diet.  In fact, this is usually what happens. Most mares will voluntarily consume more feed as her energy needs go up, thus also meeting her protein requirements.
     
    Shopping for Feeds
    It might be surprising to look at the values in Table 2 compared to the typical amount of protein present in a commercial feeds.  Most feeds designed for broodmares range between 14 and 16% crude protein, yet the overall protein percentages needed in the diet are much lower. So why do feed manufacturer’s offer such high levels of protein in their products?   For one, most of the feeds are really designed to meet the needs of the lactating mare, rather than the gestating mare. Additionally, you may remember from earlier articles that forage protein is not digested as fully as the protein which comes from concentrates. While protein requirements do try to account for some of this variance, an average digestibility value combining both forages and concentrates is used to calculate the total amount needed in the diet. Furthermore, the guidelines for protein intake are based largely from research with horses consuming mixed diets usually offering an equal proportion of concentrates and forages. Thus if more of your horse’s diet is forage, you must consider that when selecting an appropriate concentrate.   Remember as well, that legumes are digested to a further extent than grass hays, thus also offering not only more protein on a concentration basis, but also being absorbed more thoroughly by the horse. A general guideline would be, that if feeding high quality legume hays, the amount of protein required in the concentrate could be much lower (as low as 10-12% CP). If feeding primarily grass hays, then you should select a concentrate closer to 14% CP.
    Wt of horse (lb)
    Early gestation
    5 mo.
    6 mo
    7 mo
    8 mo
    9 mo.
    10 mo.
    11 mo.
    900
    507
    551
    566
    586
    611
    641
    676
    718
    1000
    562
    611
    628
    650
    677
    711
    750
    796
    1100
    619
    673
    691
    715
    746
    782
    826
    877
    1200
    675
    754
    755
    781
    814
    854
    902
    957
    1300
    731
    794
    817
    845
    881
    924
    976
    1036
    Table 1. Protein requirements (g/d) for a gestating mare based off her initial non-pregnant weight.
    % of Bwt consumed
    Early
    5 mo.
    6 mo
    7 mo
    8 mo
    9 mo.
    10 mo.
    11 mo.
    1.5
    9.6
    10.4
    10.7
    11.0
    11.5
    12.1
    12.8
    13.6
    1.75
    8.2
    8.9
    9.1
    9.5
    9.9
    10.3
    10.9
    11.6
    2.0
    7.2
    7.8
    8
    8.3
    8.6
    9.1
    9.6
    10.2
    2.25
    6.4
    6.9
    7.1
    7.4
    7.7
    8.1
    8.5
    9.0
    2.5
    5.7
    6.2
    6.4
    6.6
    6.9
    7.3
    7.7
    8.1
    Table 2. The total percent crude protein needed in the diet for a pregnant mare throughout gestation. These values are based from the total intake on a dry matter basis. However, percent total protein is represented on an as fed basis, as is represented on feed tags.
    Protein requirements for Lactation
    The lactating mare will consume more feed than the typical maintenance horse as her energy demands have increased greatly.   Just like with energy, it is the lactating mares who really have the biggest nutritional demands of any of our horses. Compare the grams of protein needed per day in Table 3 to Table 1. You can see that her protein needs have more than doubled. If mares are deficient in protein, they will be unable to produce as much milk as those at an adequate plane of nutrition, and may end up losing weight. This is certainly undesirable, as this is also the time period when most mares are being rebred as well.   Mares do a fairly good job of producing milk though certainly not equivalent to a Holstein cow! Mare’s milk production usually averages about 3% of her body weight, with that value tapering off to about 1.9% of her body weight during late lactation. The protein concentration in the milk is the highest during the first 22 days of lactation (when foal growth is very rapid) and thereafter plateaus throughout the rest of her lactation.
    Wt of horse (lb)
    Early lactation
    3mo.
    4 mo
    5 mo
    900
    1234
    1180
    1124
    1069
    1000
    1369
    1309
    1247
    1186
    1100
    1507
    1441
    1372
    1306
    1200
    1646
    1573
    1498
    1426
    1300
    1781
    1702
    1621
    1543
    Table 3. Crude protein requirements in grams per day for the lactating mare.
    % of Bwt consumed
    Early Lactation
    3
    4 mo
    5 mo
    1.5
    24.1
    23.0
    22.9
  • The Big Snow

    Written By Barbara O'Brien

    I don’t know if I’ve ever mentioned this but I live not more than five miles from the birthplace of Laura Ingalls Wilder, the author of the Little House on the Prairie books. Her life story is taught in the local schools and I drive by her family’s historic log cabin site every time I head down to Pepin to the little grocery store or the school.

    When I whiz past the tiny cabin at 60 miles an hour I rarely think about what life must have been like for Ma and Pa and little Laura, Mary, Caroline, and Grace. But yesterday as I fought through eight foot snow drifts and the wind bit into my face and tried to freeze my eyelashes together, I thought about it.

    Everyone in the region had been warned about the big snow. The weatherman predicted a snownami, a snowmaggedon, and a snowpocalypse. And, just as it does when he warns us about tornados, it went in one ear and out the other.  They are exaggerating, we Midwesterners say. 20-24 inches of snow? It can’t be that bad. They always say things like that. It will never happen. Life threatening wind chills of -25 to -35 below? We’re tough. We can take it.

    And then we act like we had never even heard the weather guy. Even as the snow started coming down and it snowed for 18 hours straight people continued to try and go about their business. At least the big city and town people did.

    Out here with our mile long driveways and dirt roads that amble and curve up and down the valleys, nobody is going anywhere. At least until the plows come. Our township roadman, Mr. Robert Stein, does a great job of plowing snow. But on days like this we understand that he has to keep the big roads open. And when there are 22 inches of snow and sustained 40 mile per hour winds it makes it a lot harder to get the job done. We are content to sit back and ride out the big storms.

    Living on a farm and knowing that the snow was coming we prepped as best we could. Snow began falling late Friday night. By Saturday morning as we did chores we already had at least six new inches of snow on the ground. We were still able get the tractor out (thank you, John Deere), and we made sure that we fed twice as much hay as we normally feed to the horses so they could eat enough calories to keep warm. We put the older, more vulnerable horses in stalls thickly bedded with shavings and extra hay so they could handle the storm without being harassed by the younger, more dominant ones.

    The sheep and chickens who normally bound joyfully out of the barn each morning, greeted me warily as I opened the door. The lead sheep ran out and, repelled by the blowing horizontal snow, immediately reversed himself and headed back. A few brave chickens who normally don’t mind the snow, stepped gingerly out, and quickly turned tail and fled inside. I put extra feed and hay in the sheep pen and filled the chicken feeders and told them they were on their own. With the door shut, the barn stays pretty warm from the heat generated by the nine sheep, three goats, and the 40+ chickens. Chores took longer than usual as we fought the wind and wet snow. We were happy to finish and go back inside to warm up.

    The rest of the day felt like the snow days we had as kids. My younger boys were disappointed that it wasn’t a real snow day (it was a Saturday) but enjoyed having everyone home together. Even my oldest son, Wes, was home from college for a few days.

    Because I own an animal actors agency and I am also a professional animal lifestyle photographer, I stay pretty focused and try to squeeze the work into every moment I have. But the big snow that had been falling for hours made me want to slow down and just appreciate the beauty of it from the warmth of my cozy farmhouse.

    I didn’t edit any images, and the dishes and the laundry could wait as we watched It’s a Wonderful Life. Wes did his best to imitate Jimmy Stewart, changing the dialogue just enough to make us laugh, and the other boys said the all of the familiar lines with the actors.

    As it grew dark, Wes and Warren started preparing dinner. This was a treat for me, as I am usually the chief cook around here. I smiled as I looked back on the relaxing day.

    But being a farmer and an animal lover and responsible for our animals’ welfare, I knew it was time to go out and check on the animals one more time and feed our two recently rescued Morgans their second helping of grain for the day.

    My two youngest sons, William and Walker, and I bundled up in fleece-lined hoodies, our Carhartt bibs and jackets, and double thickness rag wool gloves. Walker wore snow goggles, vestiges of Wes’s army service. William wore a Russian ushanka hat that ties under the chin to keep the wind out.

    We headed out into the storm. The wind and snow hit my face and eyes like a frozen hurricane as I paused for a moment to survey the scene. Over 20 inches had accumulated throughout the day and the wind had whipped up drifts higher than the shed’s rooflines.

    I sloughed through the drifts, making my way to the new barn to check on the mares first.  They seemed surprised to see me; all four were tucked into the shed. Beauty the Morgan, and the two ponies raised their heads and looked at me as if to say, “What are you doing here? It’s snowing out, Dummy. Go back inside!” And Jenny my rescue Morgan mare, snorted impatiently as if to say, “It’s about time you gave me my grain.”

    I fed Jenny in her stall and broke the ice out of her bucket and refilled it so she would have enough to drink during the long night. I turned off their lights, and told them I’d be back in the morning. I didn’t need to climb over the wood fence as I normally do because the snow had drifted over it and most of it was hidden. I waded through the drifts and made my way over to the granary where the geldings can get out of the wind.

    Although they had plenty of hay inside the barn to eat, most of them chose to continue to chew on the round bale I had placed by the granary wall that serves as a wind block. They looked like the bison you sometimes see in National Geographic. They were covered in chunks of snow and frost lined their delicate eyes and nostrils. The geldings don’t seem to mind the cold. As long as they had hay to eat and could keep out of the wind they would be okay. I checked on Jack, my other rescue Morgan, and made sure he was happy in his stall with his new buddy Louis, one of my elderly horses, nearby. I gave them fresh water also.

    I made my way to the chicken coop, which is actually a small gabled barn that houses the chickens, sheep, and goats. It was surprisingly warm inside; their water had not even froze.  I gathered the two eggs that the laying hens had decided to give to me today and closed them up for the night.

    Knowing that everyone was safe and warm, I started walking the 200 yards back to the house. In the distance, the house appeared to be smiling at me, as all the lights were on and I could see that William and Walker had gone in before me.

    It was just me and the three dogs outside in the storm now. As I forced my way through the drifts it occurred to me how lucky I am that I could see where I was going. I glanced up at the powerful yard light that illuminated the farmyard and wondered about the people who owned this farm before electric power came in the 1940s. I remembered tales of farmers dying in their own yards by becoming disoriented in the blizzard and unable to reach the safety of the house.  They weren’t kidding when it was said that farmers would have to tie rope between the barn and the house so as not to lose their way.

    About halfway up a particularly deep drift I got stuck. After working myself out of it by leaning forward and crawling out, I decided to rest for a moment. I began to wonder what it would be like to freeze to death.

    I lay there on my stomach with my face cradled in my arm in an effort to block the wind. I wondered how quickly the cold that was just beginning to seep through my heavy clothes would chill me to the point of hypothermia. The wind howled and raged around me and blasts of snow came off neighboring drifts and hit me square in the face whenever I looked up. I wondered if anybody missed me yet and what would happen if I were truly unable to move for some reason.

    It was the dogs that discovered me. Hawkeye the Border Collie, Apple the Aussie mix, and Lisle the German Shepherd all descended upon me with a flurry of kisses and much jumping back and forth over my prone body as they tried to get me to respond. When I didn’t move, Hawkeye and Apple gave up. But Lisle lay quietly down beside me as if protecting my head and face from the wind. So it is true that dogs will do their best to protect their masters, I thought to myself as I pulled myself up and told Lisle that she was very good girl.

    I caught my breath and made it the rest of the way to the house. Inside, the warm air was a welcome change from the bitter winds outside. I looked around at the comforts of modern life: heat that pours off the radiators, music coming from the iPod® in the kitchen, food in the fridge, the world at our fingertips through our computers, and I smiled, gratefully. I’m glad I’m not Laura Ingalls Wilder and her family in that little log cabin with no electricity. I am happy sitting in my warm house and just imagining what life would have been like five miles and 140 years from here. Where’s my copy of Little House in the Big Woods?

  • Omega-3: ALA intakes enough for EPA/DPA levels for non-fish eaters?

    The marine- vs plant-sourced Omega-3 FAs dialog continues, but with an interesting twist.

    Stephen Daniells

    08-Nov-2010 - The conversion of the plant-based omega-3 ALA to the long-chain EPA and DHA may be increased in vegans and vegetarians who do not eat fish, suggest results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Read the entire story at

    http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Research/Omega-3-ALA-intakes-enough-for-EPA-DPA-levels-for-non-fish-eaters

     

  • The Mare in the Middle

    Written By Barbara O'Brien

    “Some people can’t be trusted.” At least that is what my son, Wes, would tell you about me and my husband, Kevin.  What started out as an innocent, overnight trip to celebrate our 29th anniversary quickly turned into a horse rescue adventure. Now, we need another horse like we need a hole in the head. We were up to fourteen a few years back and were now down to eight. This has proven to be a nice, manageable number with a good mix of young and old.

     

    When we left that day, Wes, ever the eldest, warned us, “Now, don’t get into trouble, you two.” How much trouble could a middle aged, small town couple that didn’t smoke, drink or gamble get into?” I thought. I must tell you, we are actually pretty boring. We usually get a room at a B & B, have a nice dinner at the Branding Iron, and then spend the next day poking around antique shops. I forgot that Kevin and I are dangerous when we are away from the responsibilities of the farm and family.

     

    As we were driving to the Preston/Chatfield area in Southeastern Minnesota I mentioned to Kevin that I had seen a post on one of my horse internet forums about a herd of over 40 Morgan Horses that needed to find new homes quickly or they ran the risk of being sold to a slaughter broker.

     

    It was a just a casual comment, but Kevin was intrigued. He has the biggest heart in the world and this is why he is not allowed in animal shelters. “We don’t need another horse,” I said.  “I only mentioned it because I think it’s sad to see someone lose their farm and have to sell all of their carefully bred horses.”  “Where are they he asked?” “Mason City, Iowa,” I replied. “How far is that?” he wondered. “Only about 100 miles from where we are staying tonight.” I could see him thinking about it. “Let’s go see them,” he said finally. “Why? You know we would want to bring at least one home.” “Com’on, it will give us something to do tomorrow.” His eyes lit up like a little boy who has a wonderful plan in mind. “You don’t want to go back right away do you?”

     

    I need to preface that last sentence for you; you must understand that, because we have kids and animals, we never go on any real vacations. This one night, annual get away to an area only about 70 miles from our home is the only non-work trip we take. We would do anything to not have to go right back. We like to drag out the experience as long as possible, usually not arriving home until well after chore time.

     

    “Besides,” Kevin continued, “you can take some pictures for them and that may help the horses place faster.”  I looked at my ever-ready camera and had to agree. More pictures are always better than fewer. And the rescue group’s most recent pictures were taken during a snowstorm, so they might appreciate a few more with better light.

     

    We mulled the idea over dinner and then I contacted the rescue group and they said they would be thrilled to have us meet the horses. That night, at the bed and breakfast, just as we were about to go to sleep, we both swore that we would only take pictures and not bring home any horses. Absolutely not!

     

    The next morning, we drove to Mason City, Iowa, where Kathi Ring, of Gentle Spirit Horses, the rescue group, was waiting for us. She introduced us to the owner. He was an older gentleman, who, because of a death in the family and facing eminent foreclosure, was being forced to sell the horses. We felt bad for him, as the herd represented over 30 years of some of the finest names in the Foundation Morgan horse world. He had been offered $250 per horse by a slaughter broker, but chose instead to ask Gentle Spirit for help.

     

    Since he had lost his farm, the stallions and young stock were being housed at two adjoining feedlots and the broodmares were in a small grass pasture. With my camera in hand and Kevin ready to assist we went into the lot with the 2-7 year old mares and geldings.  We had been warned that they had not been handled much, but within moments, we found ourselves being mobbed.  Bays and blacks, buckskins and chestnuts and even a grulla came to see what we doing. They sniffed us and many allowed themselves to be scratched. My camera and the fact that I was crouching to get a better angle fascinated them.  Kevin was surrounded by curious youngsters as he unfurled the disk shaped reflector we use to bounce light on a subject.

     

    I tried to shoot as many as I could but it was hard to get individual horses, as they naturally stayed together in tight little bunches. I settled for grabbing a few headshots of as many as I could. The young horses were all very sweet and well bred of course, but it was easy to walk away. With their breeding and temperaments, I told myself, Gentle Spirit would have no trouble placing them.

     

    We then went out to the pasture that held a group of bred broodmares, three young stallions and mare with her foal.  They were also curious about us and came up to be petted. I spotted a mare with palomino foal lying in the corner of the field and managed to get a few shots of them before they got up.

     

    As I left the mare and foal and was framing my next shot, a particularly lovely bay mare walked right up to me. She was accompanied by her offspring, a two year old bay filly and a yearling buckskin stud colt. I scratched her chest and told her she was good mother and then moved on, hoping to get all the horses done before we lost our light. This merry trio, with the bay always in the middle, began to follow me around the pasture. Almost every time I tried to take a picture, the bay mare rudely interrupted me, by nosing my shoulder.

     

    It was then I looked deeply into her kind eye and I knew in my heart it was all over. This mare would have to come with us.  Now, I work with animals all the time. There have been countless puppies and kittens from animal shelters, and I even occasionally help out other horse rescues so I am pretty immune to their plight. I have managed to harden myself to their advances, as I must keep my numbers manageable. It wouldn’t be fair to the animals if I had more than I could love and care for. But this mare was special, and she was doing everything in her power to tell me that she was supposed to be mine. 

     

    Maybe the universe told her that we had lost our beloved bay Morgan mare, Cinder, to cancer two years ago. Or perhaps my first horse, who, coincidently, was a small bay Morgan mare that looked just like her, whispered to her from horse heaven. It was like she knew… and I’d have to agree, I knew it too.

     

    I didn’t say anything to Kevin although I could see he liked her also. She wasn’t even halter broke but she let me pick up her hoof and moved softly away from pressure when I asked. We finished up with the stallions in the front lot and said our thank-yous and good-byes to Kathi and the owner. We didn’t say much on the way home and, anyway, I was doing a rough edit of the images on my laptop. As I viewed the images, I was struck by how kind the eyes were of every horse I photographed. They were intelligent, curious and so typically Morgan. I hoped my efforts would help them get new homes.

     

    My mind kept drifting back to the mare. She was so sweet and kind. Even though she was not broke, I knew it wouldn’t take much to bring her around. Morgans are, as a rule, willing and thoughtful horses. They are the Border Collies of the horse world. Give them a job to do and they will do it. And they will enjoy doing it, too.

     

    That night, after dinner and chores and we were settled in, I said to Kevin, “We really don’t need another horse.” He looked down and slowly shook his head. “Agreed?” I asked. “Agreed,” he said sadly.

     

    I tried to sleep but I was still thinking about the mare. I knew that we were doing the right thing. We can’t go along rescuing every poor horse we see. As one of my other sons, Warren, would say, I was letting my “impulses pirate my thought processes”.

     

    Suddenly, I had the image of Kevin as a pirate in my mind, “Arrgh!! Lassie, she is a fine horse and we should go and get her,” he growled in his best pirate voice. “But we have enough already,” I protested weakly. “No, me fine Lass, you can never have enough horses. Let’s set sail for Mason City, Iowaay and bring her home. Arrgh!”

     

    I tossed and turned and finally fell asleep. The next morning I woke up to a horse snorting and nickering outside my window. It was exactly the sound I hear when the horses have gotten out and are wandering around.  I ran to the window and looked out and saw the bay mare standing in the yard below with my other Morgans. She was flanked by Beauty and Finn, once again in the middle. “How did you get here?” I wondered, and then I woke up. I had been dreaming all along. Was it some kind of sign? Kevin heard me moving and was soon awake himself. I looked at the clock. It was only 5:00 am.

     

    “Barbara?” he said quietly. “Are you awake?”

    “Yes,” I replied.

    “I think we should get the horse.”

    I breathed a sigh of relief. “Me too,” I whispered. “Me too.”

    “Agreed? He said. “Agreed,” I said.

     

    Later that morning I contacted the rescue and sent them the check to bail my mare out.

    She will be arriving just in time for Christmas. When I told Wes about it, he laughed and said, “I knew it! I just can’t trust you guys. You always get in trouble when you go out of town.”

     

    I haven’t named the mare yet. The rescue is still working on identifying who her parents are and who the sire is of the foal she is carrying. It really doesn’t matter to me. I

    know her heart, and she knows mine, and she will tell me her name soon enough.

     

     

    If you would like to help with the Gentle Spirit Horse's rescue/placement efforts you can find more info here:

     

    http://www.facebook.com/pages/Gentle-Spirit-Horses/149994561712125

    and here:

    http://www.gentlespirithorses.com/

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • Protein Nutrition IV: Protein for the Working Class

    Written By Dr. Kris Hiney

    Last month we learned that meeting a mature idle horse’s protein requirements are surprisingly easy.  If a horse is provided with good quality hay at 2% of its body weight it can easily consume enough protein even without eating concentrate.  However, if forage quality is low, adding a supplemental designed to provide essential amino acids can easily make up the difference.

    But my horse works hard!

    But what about if your horse has more of a job to do than just stand in his pasture and eat?  Many people automatically reach for a higher protein feed once their horse goes to work, but is that really the right thing to do?  Of course protein requirements of a working horse do go up due to the increased tissue turnover and repair associated with exercise.  Further, horses also lose nitrogen through sweating and increase muscle mass with training.  However, the increase in protein required pales in comparison to the increase in calories needed.  High protein diets increase the need for horses to excrete urea (the form in which excess nitrogen is removed from the body) and may alter their acid base balance. While horses seem to be able to handle the increased need to remove nitrogen from higher protein diets quite easily, it will result in more urine excretion.  Thus more ammonia may build up in poorly ventilated buildings and bedding costs will go up.  In fact, it may be beneficial to feed a lower total protein amount to the horse while providing key amino acids.   In one study, horses fed a lower protein diet but supplemented with lysine and threonine had higher blood pH values after exercising compared to horses on a higher protein diet (Graham-Theirs et al., 2001). When horses exercise intensely they produce lactic acid.  Lactic acid drops the pH in the blood and can contribute to the onset of fatigue. Therefore this lowered protein diet may protect against a drop in blood pH and therefore allow the horses to exercise longer or recover faster.  However it should be noted that the lower protein group was also supplemented with fat as well, clouding interpretation of results.

    So how much do they really need?

     Table 3 shows the total amounts of protein needed, while Table 4 again expresses this on a % protein basis.  You can see that most performance horses will do quite well if you select a feed between 10-12% crude protein.  Remember that when selecting a feed, you must consider your forage source first!  For example, if your performance horse was eating a primarily alfalfa hay with a value of 16% crude protein, his protein needs would already be met!  Selecting a concentrate then would primarily serve to supply any additional energy needs the horse may have.

    Table 3.  Crude protein requirements for work (g of CP/d).

    Wt of horse (lb)

    Light

    Moderate

    Heavy

    Very Heavy

    900

    562

    617

    693

    808

    1000

    624

    685

    769

    896

    1100

    687

    754

    846

    986

    1200

    750

    823

    924

    1077

    1300

    811

    891

    1000

    1165

    Table 4.  Percent total protein required in the diet on an as-fed basis depending on the total consumption of the horse per day.

    % of Bwt consumed

    Light

    Moderate

    Heavy

    Very Heavy

    1.75

    9.3

    10.3

    11.6

    13.5

    2.0

    8.2

    9.0

    10.1

    11.8

    2.25

    7.3

    8.0

    9.0

    10.5

    2.5

    6.6

    7.2

    8.1

    9.5

    Let’s do math!

    Now let’s put this together in a practical problem.  We will feed an 1100 lb horse 2% of his body weight in grass hay.  Our grass hay has 9% crude protein value on a DM basis.  We weigh out 22 lbs of hay for our horse per day but we weigh it on an as-fed basis (meaning what it weighs on a scale that day).

    First we will convert our weight of hay to the weight of our hay on a dry matter basis.  We will assume the hay is 85% dry matter.

    22 lbs x .85(% dry matter) = 18.7 lbs of hay on a dry matter basis

    Then we will convert our lbs to kilograms.

    18.7 lbs /2.24 = 8.3 kg of hay

    Multiply that by our percentage of protein.

    8.3 kg  x .09 = 747 g of CP.

    Let’s check this horse’s lysine requirements as well.  Remember that the only value for amino acids required by the horse is for lysine.  The current available knowledge suggests that horses need 4.3% of their protein to come from lysine.  Typically grass hays are fairly low in lysine compared to legume hays.  An average grass hay harvested at a mature stage is 0.38 % lysine.  Again we multiply the amount of hay fed 8.3 kg x .0038 = 31.5 grams of lysine.  Our maintenance horse only needs 32 grams of lysine.  We therefore have met his requirement by feeding this hay.

    Even if our 1100 lb horse is in moderate work we are short by only 7 grams of CP.  This can easily be met by any additional concentrate or by simply eating more hay.  However, if we move him up in work, we become much more deficient in protein as well as lysine.  Let’s assume he is now in heavy work and deficient by 100 g of protein.  We want to add 3 lbs of concentrate (which isn’t very much) to his diet.

    3 lbs /2.24 = 1.3 kg of feed

    We need our 1.3 kg to supply 100 g of CP.  So our feed needs to be 100g/1300 g of feed = 7.7 % CP on a dry matter basis. On an as fed basis, this would be 9% CP.  Almost every commercial feed will contain this level of crude protein.  Hopefully we have now illustrated that there is no need to feed a high protein feed designed for growing horses or broodmares to our exercising horses.

    In summary, protein requirements for maintenance horses or even those at work are fairly easy to meet by a normal horse diet.  If feeding a poor quality hay, you may have to supplement your horse’s diet.  If so, then choose a feed that contains legumes (like alfalfa meal) or a concentrate that contains a high quality protein like soybean meal.  While no clear amino acid recommendations are available for working horses, there appears to be some benefits of feeding lower total quantity of protein while supplementing with key amino acids.  This certainly does appear to be the future of equine research concerning protein nutrition.

    Next month we will address the protein needs of the groups of horses which need the most attention: the growing horses and the broodmares.

  • Flaxseed - Reduces Inflammation Responses - Implications for Atherosclerosis Flax Council of Canada

    Flaxseed reduces the production of major systemic markers of inflammatory activity, including eicosanoids, cytokines and platelet-activating factor. Regular consumption of flaxseed may influence the progression of atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease.

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Its origins are in infancy and childhood when the earliest lesions, called fatty streaks, begin to develop in arteries. Fatty streaks consist only of monocyte-derived macrophages and T lymphocytes—two types of immune cells whose presence in arterial walls provides evidence that the inflammatory response contributes to atherosclerosis. Recognizing the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis suggests a new approach to cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment: Developing interventions that alleviate chronic
    inflammation and may retard the progression of atherosclerosis.

    Flaxseed inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and thus reduces inflammatory responses. This effect is likely due to one or both of the following constituents present in flaxseed: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the essential omega-3 fatty, and lignans, which are phytoestrogens that exhibit antioxidant, antimitotic and antifungal activity. With its unique fatty acid profile, flaxseed is the richest source of ALA in the North American diet— ALA constitutes 57% of the total fatty acids in flaxseed. It is also the richest source of lignans, providing 75-800 times more lignans than other plant foods such as legumes, cereals, vegetables and fruits. ALA and lignans appear to influence inflammatory responses by different mechanisms.

  • The Benefits of Flaxseed

    Elaine Magee, MPH, RD — WebMD Feature

    Is flaxseed the new wonder food? Preliminary studies show that flaxseed may help fight everything from heart disease and diabetes to even breast cancer.

    Flaxseed may be on everyone's lips -- and in everyone's cereal -- but this new darling of the plant world has been around for more than 4,000 years, known even in the days of Hippocrates for its healthful benefits.

    Flaxseed has been a part of human and animal diets for thousands of years in Asia, Europe, and Africa, and more recently in North America and Australia, says Kaye Effertz, executive director of AmeriFlax, a trade promotion group representing U.S. flaxseed producers. As flax gained popularity for its industrial uses, however, its popularity as a food product waned, but it never lost its nutritional value. "Today flax is experiencing a renaissance among nutritionists, the health conscious public, food processors, and chefs alike," says Effertz.

    The reason for the increasing interest in flaxseed is its apparent benefits for a host of medical conditions, says Roberta Lee, MD, medical director of the Center for Health and Healing at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in New York.

    Flaxseed is very high in omega-3 essential fatty acids, Lee explains. It's the omega 3s -- "good" fats -- that researchers are looking at in terms of their possible effects on lowering cholesterol, stabilizing blood sugar, lowering the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancers, and reducing the inflammation of arthritis, as well as the inflammation that accompanies certain illnesses such as Parkinson's disease and asthma.

    Read more...

  • Telling the Story

    Three dogs on truck hood

    Written By Barbara O'Brien

    I had the privilege of photographing some old dogs yesterday.  My friend, Deb, made the long drive from the Twin Cities in Minnesota to our farm in western Wisconsin with her three dogs in tow.  She wanted me to do a photo session for her before she lost one of them to old age or disease.  She was especially concerned for her almost 15 year old Australian Shepherd, Brady. His condition was progressively getting worse. Day by day, she could see his once sharp mind slipping away.

    She arrived and her dogs leaped from the back of her SUV, heads high and eyes bright.  It was if they were saying, “Where are we? What are we going to do? What a cool place, Mom!”  They spotted the cats first and Dilly, her six year old Mini Aussie, pulled hard on the leash as he tried to say hello to the closet one. Brady sniffed the air and her 12 year old Sheltie, Murphy, stepped forward as if he owned the place. After a few minutes of initial excitement the dogs began to settle down, or at least Brady and Murphy did. It is not in Dilly’s nature (not unlike my own) to be still for very long. There was so much to see and do.

    I had my camera in hand so we headed down to the big barn door where a long hallway frames a dog's head nicely with the landscape beyond and tried to get the three dogs into a sit-stay. Being well trained obedience dogs, Dilly and Murphy sat quietly, but Brady couldn’t bear to have Deb out of range for more than a moment and kept breaking his stays to follow her.

    Another photographer may have been upset by this, as it was in effect, ruining the shot, but to me it was just another part of telling the story. Brady was losing his vision and hearing and to an intelligent, active dog like him if must have been a new and perhaps frightening experience. No wonder he would get up and try to follow Deb when she left him. The good obedient dog in him wanted to comply, but his confidence had been eroded by his illness and he knew he needed to be by her side.

    I told Deb not to worry and had her sit down with all three dogs. She gathered them to her chest and they all grew still, comforted by her presence. Even little Dilly stopped moving for a moment or two. I managed to get several shots of them all together before Dilly broke off to chase the chickens.

    He took off after one of my hens. The hen ran as fast as she could, bee lining it towards the safety of the henhouse. Dilly was right behind her, even grabbing a mouthful of feathers as they went behind the barn. We ran after them, positively sure that we were going find a dead hen in Dilly’s mouth. To our surprise, Dilly had chased the hen to the woven wire fence of the goat pen and was making sure the terrified hen did not try to escape as he gently herded her into the corner. Thankful that his herding instinct was stronger than his predator instinct, I rescued the hen and brought a very proud Dilly back to Deb.

    Our next shot was in the hay fields where the dogs ran and played, joyful in their newfound freedom as Deb unleashed them and let them run. Dilly zoomed back and forth through the alfalfa and Murphy, ever the gentleman, stayed right at Deb's side. Brady, grinning his doggie grin, ran from new scent to new scent, just happy to be alive. I could see that Brady was slowly leaving us, and that it would only be a matter of time before Deb would lose him forever. He seemed to have moments of clarity and then  not be with us at all. I couldn’t help remembering that all animals live in the here and now and don’t know tomorrow. As much as it pained Deb to see him deteriorate all that mattered to Brady at that moment was that he was with his beloved owner and doggie companions. He was running free in green fields, smelling new smells and feeling the warmth of the late afternoon sun upon his head and back.

    I still wanted to get a shot of the three dogs together so I took advantage of my son’s rusty old pickup truck that was parked at the edge of the field. We placed all three dogs on the hood and were able to get the group shot we wanted.

    We did a few more shots of Deb walking with the dogs down my long winding driveway and then by the wooden fence of the arena. After that, we loaded up the three tired, but happy, dogs into her SUV and Deb headed off for home.

    That evening as I was editing the images, I was overwhelmed by the depth of the loyalty, devotion and undying love that shown through each dog’s face when they looked at Deb. I felt blessed that I was able to be a part of their story, even if only for a short while. And in time, when her old dogs leave her, I hope that she will find some consolation in the images and the story her dogs told us on that glorious fall day at the farm.

  • Protein Nutrition III: Determining Protein Requirements for Your Horse

    Written By Dr. Kris Hiney

    In the last two articles we discussed the importance of protein quality, not only in terms of site of digestion in the horse, but also the amino acid composition of that feed.  Now we will try to simplify these concepts into selecting appropriate feeds for horses.

    The first task in developing a feeding program for your horse is to identify what class of horse you have.  (For a review revisit: Equine Energy Requirements and Energy Requirements for the Working Class)  The horses with the lowest protein requirements relative to their body size are the mature horses not in work, or maintenance horses.  This does not include geriatric horses which may have altered protein needs due to the lowered efficiency of their digestive system.  We also must assume that the horse is receiving enough calories in the diet.  A horse fed a diet sufficient in protein, but low in calories will lose weight (makes sense right?) but a horse which has adequate calories but not enough protein can also lose weight.  We also make some consideration for the activity level of the horse as well.  Remember the difference in energy requirements  between the couch potato Quarter Horse and the active Thoroughbred mare (Equine Energy Requirements)?  Well a similar relationship exists with protein requirements.  Essentially the more active horse would have more lean tissue/muscle  to support than the lazy horse.   Table 1 lists the actual protein requirements for a  maintenance horse depending on activity level and their body weight.  Remember that this does assume a quality protein source. Lower quality protein (less digestible or poor amino acid profile) can adjust these figures upwards.

    Table 1.  Crude Protein requirements for maintenance (grams of CP/d) based on average activity level.

    Wt of horse (lb)

    Couch potato

    Average

    Active

    900

    434

    507

    579

    1000

    482

    562

    642

    1100

    530

    619

    707

    1200

    579

    675

    772

    1300

    626

    731

    835

    What percent protein do you need?

    But let’s put these numbers into something more people are familiar with, percent of the diet.  Table 2 provides the percent protein of the total diet a horse would need to consume to meet their protein requirements.   Looking at Table 2 shows how easy it is to meet a maintenance horse’s protein requirement.  You can also see that as total consumption goes up, the percent of the protein needed in the diet goes down.  Conversely, if you fed less you would need to increase the percent protein in the diet.  Horses will usually consume between 1.5 and 2.8% of their body weight per day on a dry matter basis.  Typically you will see horses lower their consumption of less palatable hay which often equals poor quality.  However, this can largely be based on the individual, as some horses compensate by lowered feed quality by increasing intake (Edouard et al., 2008).  It turns out that horses are much more variable in their voluntary intake than other domestic species are!  Just like a horse to always want to be unpredictable. If you notice your horse picking through its hay and leaving a good proportion of the hay untouched it may be wise to select a supplement designed to provide amino acids but not to greatly increase the calorie consumption by the horse.  Alternatively it may be time to find a new hay supplier (see Selecting Forages).

    Table 2a. Percent total protein required in the diet on a dry matter basis depending on the total consumption of the horse per day.

    % of Bwt consumed

    Couch potato

    Average

    Active

    1.5

    7.2

    8.4

    9.6

    1.75

    6.2

    7.2

    8.2

    2.0

    5.4

    6.3

    7.2

    2.25

    4.8

    5.6

    6.4

    2.5

    4.3

    5.0

    5.6

    Table 2b. Percent total protein required in the diet expressed on an as fed basis assuming an average dry matter content of 85%. Note: this can change with the feed fed and is only representative of harvested feeds, not pasture or grasses.

    % of Bwt consumed

    Couch potato

    Average

    Active

    1.5

    8.5

    9.9

    11.3

    1.75

    7.3

    8.5

    9.7

    2.0

    6.4

    7.4

    8.4

    2.25

    5.6

    6.6

    7.5

    2.5

    5.1

    5.9

    6.8

    Protein content of common horse feeds

    Now let’s look at some typical protein values for feeds.  To be sure of your own feed ideally have your forage tested as well as examine your feed tag.  Corn ranges between 8-9 % CP on a DM basis, oats 12-13%, soybean meal – 43-49%, grass hays – 10-18%, and legumes between 18-25%.   With the range of protein content in forages, one can see how important it is to have knowledge of your nutrient content prior to selecting your concentrate.   Even with these ranges, most maintenance horses will easily meet their protein requirements by forage alone.  If you look at the range of percent protein needed by the maintenance horse in their total diet, it compares quite well with grass hays.  If you are feeding your horse and he is maintaining weight, he should easily be meeting his protein requirements at the same time.  Remember, we assume  the horse is receiving good quality hay.  If you are worried about the horse meeting its amino acid needs, many feed companies make supplements specifically designed to be fed with a strictly forage diet, rather than greatly increasing the concentrate intake.  For example, many feed companies offer protein supplements in the range of 30-35% crude protein.  These are designed to be fed at a minimal rate (only 1-2 lbs per day) in order to simply balance out any deficiencies from an all forage diet.  Clearly not all horses need the extra calories that come from feeding higher levels of concentrates.  This provides a convenient, easy way to ensure that your horse’s nutritional needs are being met.

    Next month we continue with protein nutrition in the exercising horse.

    Edouard et al.2008. Animal:An international journal of animal biosciences. 102:10:1526-1533.

  • Protein Nutrition, Part II Protein Quality - It's More Than Just Digestibility

    Written By Dr. Kris Hiney
    In the last article, we introduced the idea of examining the protein in our horse’s diet beyond just the mere percent crude protein on the feed tag or a forage report. We discussed the concept of protein digestibility and the importance of the site of digestion. As there is only limited evidence that uptake of amino acids takes place in the hind gut of the horse, we prefer to feed proteins which are digested and absorbed in the small intestine of the horse. Typically concentrates offer more pre-cecal digestibility of protein than do forages. Therefore site and extent of digestion are key components of protein quality. However, there is another equally important factor in protein quality, and that is the amino acid profile.
    Last month the amino acids that horses could synthesize on their own were listed, as well as the amino acids that are essential to be supplied by the diet. Horses must receive the proper balance of amino acids in order to synthesize the many complete proteins in their body. When they do not receive enough of a particular amino acid, protein synthesis is limited. That amino acid is then referred to as the limiting amino acid. Typically, lysine is the most common limiting amino acid in the horse’s diet, or the one in shortest supply. It does not mean it is the most abundant amino acid found in the horse’s body, rather the one that is most commonly deficient in feeds. Now remember, every protein in the body is coded for by the DNA that provides a blue print to build that protein. The DNA provides the proper sequence of amino acids that must be linked together to form the protein. Let’s say that to build one molecule of actin (a protein found in muscle cells responsible for their contractile activity) there are 25 lysines, 30 threonines and 46 alanines. (The actual polypeptide chain of actin is over 300 amino acids long.)    If the diet contained only enough for 20 lysines to be added to the peptide chain, protein synthesis would halt, even if you had 35 threonines. If you added those lysines back in through the diet, protein synthesis could continue. Now, this is an arbitrary example, instead try to think of protein synthesis occurring throughout the body, constantly adding amino acids that have come from the diet, synthesized by the horse, or that have been recycled by tearing down old proteins.   Obviously the more protein the horse is synthesizing (think young growing horses) the more critical the amino acid profile of the diet.

    DNA molecule which contains the information to build every protein in your horses body.
    http://www.stern.de/_content/50/44/504448/dna_500.jpg
    So what is the amino acid profile? Simply put, it is the percentage of each amino acid that appears in the diet, or even in a horse’s tissue. For example, in equine muscle tissue, lysine is set at a relative value of 100%, while other amino acids such as arginine, leucine, phenylalanine and threonine appear at 76, 107,60 and 61% respectively of the amount of lysine present in muscle(Bryden, 1991). In other animal species such as swine and poultry, nutritionists try to match the amino acid profile of the diet to the amino acid profile of the actual animal. In this manner, the least amount of amino acids are wasted. Instead, they are incorporated into the animals’ body to allow for growth, reproduction etc. One of the goals of many animal nutritionists is to achieve something called zero nitrogen balance in the animal. That means the amount of N going into the animal matches the amount of N going out of the animal. Or we are replacing the amount of N that is being lost by the animal through normal tissue turnoever. If we feed protein beyond what the animal requires, the animal will still digest and absorb those amino acids. However, if they exceed the horse’s requirements to synthesize protein, the horse will instead catabolize those amino acids for fuel, and excrete the nitrogen in the urine as urea. If you have ever walked into a poorly ventilated barn with horses that were fed high protein diets, you probably have smelled the ammonia that comes with excessive protein feeding. Furthermore, feeding excess N just adds to the N being added back to the ground through runoff from facilities.
    Protein quality and it’s amino acid profile can alter how much protein the horse actually requires. While we often just discuss protein requirements generically as a percentage, in fact horses can be fed a lower total amount of protein if it is of higher quality. For example, in young horses, the lysine requirement is 4.3% of their crude protein requirement.    The higher amount of lysine in the feed, the less of that feed will need to be fed. Let’s take a 4 month old foal which requires 669 grams of CP and 28.8 g of lysine. We then feed our horse either a 16% crude protein feed of high or low quality. We feed him at 2.5 % of his body weight and he weighs 370 lbs. That provides an intake of 9.25 lbs per day. If his feed provides 16% protein, he gets 660 grams of protein. We have almost completely met his protein requirements. But what if one of our feed sources contained only 2% lysine? That means that the foal would be deficient by 15.8 grams (the feed would provide 13 g of lysine) and thus his growth rate would be limited. Therefore the foal would have to eat much more of that diet (more than he can consume) in order to consume the correct amount of lysine. Our foal on the high quality diet would receive 28 g of lysine, meeting his requirements, and allow his body to grow normally. In older horses whose protein requirements are easier to meet, we can actually lower the total amount of protein in the diet provided it is of a high quality. In fact, lowering the total protein in the diet while supplementing key amino acids has been proven effective in both growing horses (Graham et al., 1994, Stanier et al, 2001) and in exercising horses (Graham-Thiers et al, 1999, 2001)
    The future of protein nutrition in the horse may very well focus on identifying the correct amino acids needed in the horse’s diet, and moving to a lowering of the absolute % CP in the diet, therefore minimizing waste, and decreasing the amount of N added back to the environment. While nutritionists still have much to learn, the goal when feeding protein is to feed just the right amount the horse needs, and not to overfeed needlessly.
    Next month, we put the theories into practice and discuss protein requirements for various classes of horses.

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