Tag Archives: protein source

  • The Inside of an Egg

    Written By Lisa Steele , Fresh Eggs Daily


    Eggs are nutritious and an inexpensive protein source. You probably eat them several times a week without a second thought. But did you ever wonder what exactly is inside that eggshell?

    An egg is comprised of several components including the bloom, the shell, the membrane, the white, and the yolk, but that’s just the basics - blood spots, chalazae and bulls' eyes may also be present.

    As the last step in the laying process, a thin nearly invisible layer is applied to the eggshell called the 'bloom' (sometimes also called the 'cuticle'). This covering seals the shell to help protect the egg from air and bacteria entering through the tiny pores in the eggshell and also reduces the moisture loss from the egg. Eggs should not be washed until just before using to help preserve the bloom and to help keep the egg fresh.

    Just under the eggshell is a pair of thin whitish membranes that help to keep air out of the egg.  Once an egg is laid, an air pocket begins to form between the two membranes at the blunt end of the egg. This air sac will continue to grow as the egg ages. Older hard-boiled eggs peel more easily because the air between the membranes has begun to separate the egg contents from the shell.

    The shell is the hard outer covering of the egg and is the egg's best line of defense against contamination from bacteria and germs. The shell is mostly made of calcium carbonate, with small amounts of magnesium carbonate, calcium phosphate and protein.

    All egg shells start out white and then blue and/or brown pigment is applied during the laying process. The blue is applied earlier (in breeds who carry the blue gene) and does seep through to the inside of the shell, but if you notice, the inside of a brown eggshell is always white. All eggs taste the same and contain  virtually the same nutrients regardless of shell color.

    The egg white, or albumen contains 60% of the protein in an egg, which is about 10% of the USRDA. Eggs are considered a complete protein because they contain all eight essential amino acids. The white of a fresh egg will be cloudy and very thick. As the egg ages, the white will become nearly transparent and thin as air flows through the pores in the eggshell.

    Each egg yolk is covered with a thin transparent membrane which keeps the yolk from breaking. This membrane becomes thinner and weaker as an egg ages, so fresh egg yolks will stand up taller and be less likely to break.

    The egg yolk contains about 80% of the total calories and virtually all of the fat and cholesterol in the egg, along with the majority of the vitamins and minerals. The color of the yolk is determined by the level of xyanthophyll in the foods a hen eats. Xyanthophyll is a carotenoid found in marigold petals, corn, alfalfa, basil and other foods.

    The chalazae are ropy, twisted strands in the egg white that anchor the yolk in place in the center of the white. They are more prominent in fresh eggs and perfectly edible.
    Red blood (or meat) spots on an egg yolk is not an indication of fertility, but are ruptured blood vessels that have been damaged or broken during the laying process, during the travel down the oviduct, or by rough handling of the egg. As an egg ages, the yolk absorbs water from the egg white. This dilutes the blood spot, so a spot indicates that the egg is fresh.

    The blood spots are edible, but you may want to remove them before cooking the egg.  It is estimated that less than 1% of all eggs produced contain blood spots.

    If an egg has been fertilized, you will see a multi-ringed bull's eye on the yolk that indicates that the egg would likely hatch into a chick if incubated for 21 days under a hen or in an incubator. Fertilized eggs are perfectly edible and taste the same as non-fertilized eggs. The only difference is that they contain miniscule amounts of the male rooster's DNA in addition to the hen's DNA that all eggs contain.

  • Goat Industry 2013: Why and Wherefores

    Written By Janice Spaulding , www.GoatSchool.com

    My husband and I just returned from a whirl-wind Goat School® tour that took us from our home base in Saint Albans Maine all the way across Canada to Taylor British Columbia (approximately 30 kilometers north of Dawson Creek) then back to the United States for a weekend Goat School® in Hillsboro Ohio. The entire trip took 21 days and encompassed just under 8000 miles in our 2006 GMC.

    For those who have attended Goat School® here at our Maine farm you know that our primary focus is on raising and breeding top quality disease, resistant animals, that will not only be easy keepers but also productive and profitable additions to any farm operation. At the special request of our British Columbia sponsors we changed our usual format and spent the entire first day on explaining the “why and wherefores” of the goat industry in 2013. The presentation was so well received in Canada that we incorporated it into the Hillsboro Ohio event as well. (First time Ken ever got a standing ovation for a presentation). While the information focused mainly on what is happening in Canada there are also implications as to what is taking place in the United States. Here is some of what we discussed:

    There has been a longstanding joke in the goat business, “ How do you make a million dollars selling goats?” simple answer “ you start off with 2 million dollars!”

    At first glance this might seem to be an off the shoulder remark but there is a certain amount of truth to it. In a real way it takes money to make money. It is very rare for someone to fall into a money making, get rich quick scheme. Most always it involves lots of blood, sweat and tears. That's where the 2 million dollars comes in. You must do your due diligence; you must determine your goals, you must (within reason) come up with a business plan. Business plans are not carved in stone they must have a real basis but must also be flexible enough to change as your situation changes. You must do your homework and you must research as fully as possible the market you plan to serve. It does you no good to spend all your time investigating the goat markets in Arizona if your operation is going to be located in Maryland.

    The situation in British Columbia is ideal for an expanded goat presence. The infrastructure is already in place, due to a thriving beef cattle industry. So it is a simple matter of identifying potential markets and adding goats, in proper numbers, to the existing herds.

    Why are goats and more importantly goat meat (Chevon) becoming so popular in both the United States and Canada. The answer is, changes in immigration policies in both countries.

    Legal immigrants in the United States are at the highest number ever at 37,000,000. Since the year 2000 the number of immigrants to the US has averaged 1,000,000 per year. In 2006 the percentage of the US population consisting of foreign born was at 12.5% and the Canadian rate was 19.8%.

    Who are these immigrants? They are described statistically as the “visible minority” and defined by the Employment Equity Act as “ persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in color.” The visible minority consists mainly of the following groups: Chinese, South Asian, Black, Arab, West Asian, Filipino, Southeast Asian, Latin American, Japanese, and Korean. While this may be a somewhat complex definition, for our purposes and in no way meant to be offensive, these are people whose primary dietary protein is goat meat.

    One important fact to note is that the newer immigrants, unlike their predecessors, do not look upon the idea of assimilating into the culture of their new country. They no longer come to Canada to become Canadians or to the US to become Americans. They bring their religion and cultures along with them and are looking at the freedom to be who they are and not who someone wants them to be. For someone in the business of raising meat goats this is the perfect scenario! These folks are your potential and existing customers. Religious belief and cultural traditions are a fundamental and unchanging part of the daily lives of this visible minority.

    What drives this desire for goat meat and why can't the new immigrants simply adjust their eating habits to a “beefier” diet?

    Dietary preferences are part of our being and at the very core of our existence. Prior to the 1990's the majority of immigrants to the US and Canada were of European descent. Stop and ponder this; Europe, much like the Northern US and especially Canada, is a relatively cold climate. We have ice; and what does ice give us? Ice gives us the ability to preserve and keep large pieces of protein; beef! We can process a 1200 pound beef critter and preserve it for long periods of time. We have adjusted our diets accordingly. People defined as the “visible minority” typically come from fairly warm climates; that means no ice, no refrigeration, perhaps no electricity and no ability to preserve large portions of protein. It is for that primary reason goats have for millennium been the main protein source.

    Now that we've identified our market how do we go about tapping into it you ask? Here are a few thoughts: Raising goats involves a great deal of common sense and surprisingly when it comes to livestock many folks particularly city dwellers don't have it. To successfully raise goats you need to develop a “gut instinct”. You need to pay attention to how they move, eat, rest, get from location to location and watch what they don't eat. You need to learn to think like a goat. If it's easy or cheap it's probably not going to work with goats. When you decide to become a goat herder you can forget about having days off. There are no holidays, sick days or paid vacations. Raising goats becomes your life and your lifestyle. Goats can not be successfully raised by an absentee landlord. While it may be possible to raise goats “just for the money” it likely will not be an enjoyable experience for you and probably not for the goats either.

    Choose your mentors carefully. Don't blindly do what your friends or neighbors are doing. You must educate yourself with the best information possible. Don't get advice from someone raising show goats if you're not raising show goats. They may be experts in the “show ring” but have an entirely different regimen on diet and nutrition than what you need to keep commercial meat goats thriving and healthy.

    You are not going to make much if any money for several years because of start-up costs like buying land, fencing and of course, goats. This is true in any business. If you don't have enough money to survive for up to three years without taking money out of the business you are not likely to be successful. There are no “quick fixes” in the goat business. The problems you may encounter are usually not a result of the particular breed of goat but rather your particular management style. Where you are located does make a difference. If your pastures can not support 100 goats you can not raise 100 goats. With proper management, land, facilities and nutrition you can raise any breed of goat to a healthy marketability.

    If you are interested in learning more about owning and caring for goats visit our website www.goatschool.com!


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