Articles

  • Egg Bound Hens

    Written By Lisa Steele, Fresh Eggs Daily

    Considering that a chicken lays an egg every 26 hours or so, it's no wonder that things sometimes go wrong. Occasionally, an egg will get stuck in a hen’s oviduct and she will become egg bound. Signs of an egg bound hen include sitting on the ground or dragging wings, fluffing up, lethargy and closed eyes. Frequently, an egg bound hen’s tail will be down and most likely she will be straining or pumping her backside. Upon closer examination you may notice liquid dripping from her vent. You may even be able to feel an egg-shaped lump.

    Causes of Egg Binding - More common in young pullets, egg binding could be due to a large or double yolked egg that is too large to pass through, genetics, stress, dehydration, internal worms, low-quality feed, poor health or a calcium deficiency. Calcium is needed for proper muscle contraction. Too much protein in a hen's diet can also cause egg binding.

    You want to handle your egg bound hen carefully to avoid breaking the egg inside her. A broken egg can become infected and lead to peritonitis, which is caused by egg material stuck inside the hen and must be treated immediately with an antibiotic and probiotic powder to build up her good bacteria. Even if the egg is not broken, the condition must be treated quickly. An egg bound hen will die if she is not able to pass the egg within 48 hours, so once you have made your diagnosis, treatment should start immediately.

    Treatment for Egg Binding - Bring the hen into the house and soak her in a plastic tub in your bathtub.

    Submerge her lower body and vent in warm water with some Epsom salts for about 20 minutes, gently rubbing her abdomen. Remove her gently from the bath and towel dry her, blotting her feathers carefully, then blow dry her with a hair dryer set on low heat.

    Rub some vegetable oil around her vent and very gently massage her abdomen once more then put her in quiet, dark location - such as a large dog crate or cage. You want to create moist heat, so set the cage over a pan of hot water, put a heating pad and towel on the bottom of the crate or set up a heat lamp, then drape a towel over the cage.

    Give your egg bound hen an eyedropper of Nutri-Drench and 1cc of liquid calcium. Then give her some time to herself. Repeat the soak in the tub every hour or so until she lays her egg.

    As a last resort, a visit to a vet is recommended or, if you can see the egg, you can try to carefully extract the contents of the egg using a syringe. Then you will need to gently crush the shell, keeping the fragments attached to the membrane and remove it using vegetable oil squirted in and around the vent. This is risky and carries with it the danger of your hen contracting peritonitis, so should ONLY be used after all other remedies have been tried.

    Fortunately, being egg bound is not all that common, and there's a good chance you may never have a hen suffer from it, but it's still good to know the signs and how to treat it.

  • Kidding

    Written By Janice Spaulding, founder of Goat School

    Kidding time is the most exciting time on the farm! Will it be a doeling or a buckling? What will its markings be? What color? How many?? Such fun!

    The big kidding question always is: How do I know when my goat is ready to deliver? Watch your does. The poor girl may get crankier as she gets closer. Some does produce copious amounts of mucous, very stringy, hanging down, and even dragging on the ground. This is a sign that labor is imminent. Our Boer doe, NanC, used to go 4 or 5 days with a drippy butt, other goats do not have any mucous at all.

    Watch their udders. You will see changes as their delivery date draws near. In some goats the udder expands greatly over time, others will expand just a few hours before delivery. As labor gets closer the udder gets very big, solid feeling, and almost shiny in appearance, often called “strutted” udder.

    For Angora’s, (or any longer haired goat) make sure, if the goat hasn’t been sheared, that you crutch her well ahead of time and also trim around the udder. Crutching is cutting away all the hair on the back end and down the back of the legs and around the udder and teats. It will get ruined during birthing process anyway. Make sure the teats are easy to find for those little ones.

    One of the best indicators of impending labor is “calling”. Your doe will walk around looking like she is in a panic, searching for something. She will call out over and over again. Sometimes it’s a very soft call, sometimes a gentle talking to her belly and sometimes a really loud yelling. She is calling to her baby which hasn’t been born yet. At this stage, she should be kidding fairly soon and should be put in a kidding pen.

    If your doe has been calling, it will get more frantic and the calls could end with a prolonged grunting noise. A water bubble will often be visible and will usually break. She will get up, lie down, squat, get up, pee, lie down and so on; so many times it will make you crazy.

    When we hear the sounds of labor beginning over our baby monitor, off we go to the barn. If you have a close relationship with your doe, she may not want to have her kids without you being around! They can hold back their labor for quite some time.

    Once you see that the goat is actually in labor, you will want to put down clean hay in her area and get your gloves ready. DO NOT put your fingers or hands inside the goat unless absolutely necessary! If it becomes evident that the doe needs some help, put some K-Y Jelly on your fingers and insert one finger, massage the orifice of the vulva gently from inside. This will usually relax and lubricate enough for the baby to slide out.

    The kid’s position should be a nose between two little hoofs. This is, of course, the perfect position but it doesn’t always happen. Don’t be alarmed if you see a little tongue hanging out of the kid’s mouth! They sometimes are born this way, and it’s really quite cute!

    After the kids are born, they need to be wiped down quickly. I usually bring the baby around to the front of mom and wipe along with her licking. We work together to keep baby warm and get it dried off. If there is more than one kid, make sure both or all of the babies are kept in front of the doe. You certainly don’t want her to reject any babies.

    Be aware that sometimes the kids are bright yellow when they are born. This will be more evident in the Angora’s. They look like little yellow chicks! This is normal. It usually happens when a baby is a day or two over due. The baby’s internal organs are beginning to function and the baby passes some of the meconium into amniotic fluid, thus coloring it and the baby with it.

    Sometimes the goat’s teat will have a little waxy plug in the end of it, or over the orifice. This is more common in Angoras. This plug needs to be removed so the baby can nurse. By milking a small amount from each teat you will be assured that the teat is free from this plug. If nothing comes out, gently scrape the end of the teat with your finger nail. In stubborn cases, warm cloths will help. Some kids can nurse the plug right out, but others can’t so always make sure you have taken this step.

    Once you are confident that kidding is complete, this is the point where your doe needs a reward. We fill a small bucket with warm water and molasses (1 gallon of water, ¼ to ½ cup of molasses. It gives the doe some extra energy, plus most of them love the taste. They are also very thirsty at this stage.

    During the three or four days that the doe is in her kidding pen with her new kids, I give her extra grain. About 1 ½ times her regular ration along with some supplement.

    Normally the afterbirth (placenta) usually will be delivered in an hour or two. (However, it can take up to 24 hours ) Try to watch for it. We dispose of it in empty grain bags unless the doe decides to eat it. I know this is gross, but there are all kinds of nutrients and vitamins in the placenta that is good for the doe and helps in her healing after birthing. There are also hormones that trigger milk production. Some will eat it and some most definitely will not.

    One of the reasons to sequester your doe during labor and afterward is for her and her babies to bond. Very rarely, but it does happen, a doe will reject her kid. You will have to take the upper hand here. The mom will have to be held while someone else gets the babe on the teat. A 4X4 kidding pen is very adequate for even the biggest of goats.

    We weigh the babies immediately after birth, and again when the babies are 24 hours old. This will assure you that they are nursing properly. We weigh very often during the first month, just to keep track of what kind of gain the kids of each mom has.

    Mom will get a very yucky, crusty area on and around her tail. Once she is finished streaming (getting rid of what is left in her uterus) it gets all dried up and cakey. You can trim it off with some scissors. Some of it will pull off and parts will just brush off. It is best to clean her up especially in fly season!

    Let’s address the kids and their poop. The first poop is a black tar like substance called meconium which hopefully, mom will clean up for you! Otherwise, it’s difficult to clean up. Warm water and a good butt soak will work nicely to soften and loosen up this gooey substance. I also use baby shampoo if necessary.

    Once the meconium passes, the next bowel movements will be bright yellow, about the same color as yellow mustard. Mom will usually clean this up too, but if she doesn’t you will have to. If this yellow poop cakes over the anal opening, it will get hard and make it impossible for the little one to have a bowel movement. This will eventually cause death. Through the years, I have found this tends to be more of a problem with Angora’s. I think it’s more difficult for the mom to clean up all those little curls around the butt area.

    Most of the time you can pull the cakey mess off, other times it will take a butt soak.

    Want to learn more? Come to Goat School! Our spring class will be held Saturday, May 24th and Sunday, May 25th with a Goat Milk Soap and Goat Cheese Making Class on Monday, May 26th! Go to www.goatschool.com/id28.html for more information!

  • Does the Season Affect Your Feeding Management?

    Written By Dr. Kris Hiney

    Does the season affect your feeding management? Winter is the season of short days, long cold nights and reduced riding time for us and our horses. Often what we feed our horses in the winter shifts as their energy requirements change, as well as the feedstuffs we might be using. That shift in seasons may mean we need to look at our feed sources and our supplement regimen more closely.

    To begin our discussion, remember that a horse’s energy requirements do change with the seasons. Cold weather creates additional caloric demands on the horse’s body in order to regulate its body temperature. When temperatures drop below a certain point, referred to as an animal’s lower critical temperature, it must expend more energy in order to maintain its own body temperature. For horses which are acclimated to cold temperatures (meaning we have allowed them to grow a hair coat and they have been housed outdoors), this lower critical temperature is usually around 5° Fahrenheit. When temperatures drop below this point, we really should be feeding our horses more. In general, for every two degrees drop in temperature, the horse needs 2.5% more calories to maintain its’ body temperature. Therefore, if it gets down to about 10 below, your horse will need 20-25% more feed! These numbers do not consider wind chill factors, which can drive up heat loss substantially. Bottom line, in light of this year’s extreme cold, if your horse is living outside this winter, you may find yourself going through your hay supply much faster than you had anticipated.

    How you choose to supply that energy to your horse may be important as well. There are several strategies which may be employed to augment your horse’s calorie deficiency. One easy way to meet energy requirements, along with adding to the heat produced by the process of fermentation in the hindgut, is to simply feed more hay. Consumption of hay has a higher heat increment (or heat associated with digestion) than other feeds, therefore it helps to keep your horse warm at the same time. In addition, more calories can be provided by choosing a higher energy concentrate, such as one with higher concentrations of fat. There are many commercial feeds available with added fat, or choosing rice bran or a flax source may be an option. If choosing a fat-added feed, it will provide more calories to the horse without having to increase as greatly the volume of feed that you are using. Many horse owner’s also like to add warm mashes to their horses diet in the winter. This provides more energy to the horse as bran or pellet mashes are higher in caloric density than forage. The additional benefit is that you can increase your horse’s water consumption, which may have decreased in the winter if they do not have access to heated water. Finally, it just may make you feel good to feed your horse a nice warm mash on those cold days and nights.

    Obviously the manner in which we feed our horses also changes with the season. Ideally, horses are allowed opportunities to graze pasture grass in the temperate part of the year. However, with the fall and winter, horses in northern climates much be switched to an all harvested forage diet. While many of the nutrient components in harvested forage may be completely adequate for your horse, realize that the composition of plants does change with advancing maturity. In order to be tall enough to produce hay, grasses and legumes must reach a more mature state than a horse would typically select left to its own devices. In addition, some nutrients, such as vitamin A, do diminish over time. In particular, omega three fatty acids are found in smaller quantities in hay than in fresh growing grass. As we have changed how we manage all of our production animals and switched to more grain based diets, they now consume much more n-6 fatty acids versus n-3 fatty acids than when they were more pastorally raised. In fact, knowledge of the higher content of n-3 fatty acids in grass is in part what has led to the rising consumer popularity of grass fed beef. Grazed cattle consume much more n-3 fatty acids compared to traditionally raised feed lot cattle which have diets much higher in n-6 fatty acids. The diet the animal is on directly influences the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in their body tissues. Diets higher in n-3 fatty acids have been shown to be anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and cardio protective. While we may not think about horses in quite the same way, or feed them a concentrate based diet like feed lot cattle, the same process of incorporation of more n-3 fatty acids into their tissues occurs when horses graze or are supplemented with n-3 fatty acids. Ideally, our horses also should be consuming more grass and n-3 fatty acids, and less n-6 fatty acids which are found so abundantly in concentrates. However, even switching to a harvested forage based diet can alter the n-6 to n-3 ratio compared to a fresh grazing. Hay making can result in a loss of fatty acids of more than 50%, especially of linolenic acid, with a comparative increase in n-6 fatty acids. In a study using ewes, grass fed ewes had more milk and tissue n-3 fatty acids than ewes fed a hay diet. But obviously we cannot always feed grass to our horses. Therefore, in order to mimic the natural diet of the horse, and provide them the positive benefits of n-3 fatty acids, we can supplement them in other ways. Flax is a rich source of linolenic acid which horses readily consume. Therefore, in the winter, why not try a flax supplement and at least return your horse’s diet to summer, even if the wind is still howling!

  • Equine Arthritis: Dealing with the Pain

    Written By Walt Friedrich

    Ask anyone who suffers from arthritis what it’s like, and you’ll hear just one word repeated and repeated – pain. And you won’t have to look very far to find people to ask. In some cases, you don’t even need to ask – you can tell just by watching them move; they don’t like to because it hurts.

    We’re not alone in coping with this painful monster – our horses, like humans, are quite prone to arthritis, and they hurt just as much as we do.

    We hope medical science will soon be able to control it, even cure it, both horse and human, but until then, because it’s a chronic degenerative disease, the prognosis isn’t good. Once it’s in our joints, it’s there for keeps, and if left untreated, it just gets worse. So we compensate: we medicate to mitigate the symptoms. We avoid activities that we know will hurt.

    Lucky us, humans can do that. Horses not so much. They rely upon us to see and recognize their symptoms, then do something about it to ease their pain, just as we do our own. Problem is, sometimes we don’t “get the message” when our horse hurts. But the clues are there, you can bet on it. We need to recognize what their body language is saying.

    Fortunately, most of us can spot a horse that’s in obvious pain, though we may not be able to pinpoint exactly where it’s centered. Here are some of the general symptoms that tell us that our horse is hurting:

    • An obvious limp • A listless, depressed attitude.

    • Decreased appetite.

    • Lies down more than usual

    • Doesn’t move around as much as usual, less interested in playing • Separates himself from his herdmates

    • When standing, eases the weight load on an involved leg by “pointing” a forefoot or “flexing” a hind foot to let the opposite leg take up the weight burden.

    • When ridden, seems stiff, may refuse certain movements such as collection, jumps, certain turns and the like.

    We get a break when examining specifically for arthritis: it is a disease that’s centered in the joints, which narrows down which areas we need to concentrate on. Here are some of the symptoms of arthritic pain:

    • Joint swelling • Warmth around a joint

    • Reduced ability to move the joint

    • Stiffness, especially in the morning

    • Misshapen joint

    • When picking his feet, you notice less dirt, hay, manure packed in

    When we do see the symptoms, we bring in the vet to do another evaluation, and if our suspicions are confirmed, our next thought is how do we get rid of the problem? Can’t we just take a pill?

    Unfortunately, there is no silver bullet – not yet, anyway, though science is trying hard to develop one. As a chronic degenerative condition quite possibly stemming from an autoimmune problem, and at this point is incurable, we can’t get rid of arthritis by any simple medication.

    Fortunately, we can deal with it and make our horse’s life immensely easier. There are effective lifestyle changes that can reduce pain, improve function, and arrest further joint damage. First, start a slimming down program if he’s overweight. That alone will greatly help joint pain in his legs and feet.

    Controlled movement will help relieve stiffness and reduce pain and fatigue. Gentle daily exercise is excellent therapy, particularly important because affected joints need plenty movement to prevent permanent restriction of motion. Thirty minutes per day of steady walking, if his lameness permits, is usually enough. It will help to pick up an affected leg frequently and flex or extend the joints a dozen times or so. Free-range turnout is an excellent lifestyle for all horses, but note that it does not replace actual therapy.

    Though inconclusive, some positive results have been reported from supplementation with bioflavonoids, and especially glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates. These two natural substances are readily available for purchase; they stimulate formation and repair of joint cartilage. In addition, add antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, plus a generous dosage of omega-3.

    Applying a liniment such as Absorbine is quite helpful. It creates a mild inflammation that increases blood flow and eases the pain. Bandaging is also helpful because it holds in heat, but it’s mostly effective only on the fetlock (ankle). Other joints are better served using Neoprene wraps, but be careful if you use Neoprene over liniment – some liniments are irritating under Neoprene, and it is important to avoid irritating the skin. Read the liniment label for warnings. Massage the dosed area for ten or fifteen minutes after applying liniment and before bandaging.

    Those sore joints will very much appreciate heat. Gentle heat is the magic touch for the pain of arthritis under everyday conditions. But his arthritis may flare up occasionally, and become much more painful. When it happens, ease up on his walking therapy, and use cold therapy instead of heat. You can use a garden hose (no nozzle), for example, and hose down a particularly sore knee. Temporary increases of antioxidants and glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate will bring some added relief. Please note that while bandaging will help control swelling, it also holds in heat, just the opposite of what you want during a flare-up, thus you may have to forego bandaging temporarily. Use discretion and never over-do.

    During a flare-up, increase the dosage of bioflavonoids, vitamin E and especially vitamin C, and be sure glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates are dosed to full recommended levels, to help minimize further joint damage.

    You can safely dose with Bute at flare-up time, but be careful. Only the worst cases require constant, repeated dosing, and that has some potentially serious side-effects. One is the suppression of an enzyme, resulting in the reduction of the stomach’s protection against ulcers. If the situation calls for frequent dosing of Bute, you can also supplement him with a half to a full cup of lecithin each day. Lecithin effectively protects the stomach wall from damage, is tasteless, and is relatively inexpensive. There are other products to control ulcer pain; discuss them with your vet.

    Once a flare-up has eased, phase out the cold therapy and get back to hand-walking for brief periods several times a day. Long-term, exercise is of paramount importance.

    If you shoe your horse, squaring the toes makes breakover easier and smoother, thus easier on arthritic joints, but be sure to keep the feet at their natural angle so you don’t complicate matters. Don’t use caulks, trailers or grabs on the shoe, and use shoe padding to raise the heel angles slightly.

    Finally, consider his nutrition. Ideally, his primary feed should be low-sugar roughage, such as a grass hay like timothy, selected for proper mineral balance and sugar content. As previously suggested, supplement it with Vitamins C and E because of their excellent anti-oxidant qualities, and with high omega-3 fatty acids such as Omega Fields’ product, HorseShine. Round it off with a cup of canola oil per day.

    Don’t expect a cure from these steps. There isn’t one. But you can most assuredly make life easier for him.

  • My Inner Fire

    Written By Jenny Pavlovic

    My Inner Fire I recently attended a yoga retreat. We were asked to visualize our inner fire, like as a flame or the sun. In my mind’s eye I saw this blazing orange cattle dog, this intrepid, very yang dog: Bandit. Yang means fast, solid, focused, hot, and is associated with fire, the sky, the sun, masculinity and daytime. Over the past ten years Bandit has taught me so much about life, and now he is showing me how to live (really live!) with cancer. He is my inner fire.

    Bandit, an Australian Cattle Dog, first appeared in my life just moments after my very old red and white cattle dog mix Rusty had passed away at the vet clinic. A very engaging puppy, Bandit had Rusty’s red ears and mask. I was sure that Rusty had somehow sent this solid little charmer, the only red cattle dog puppy for miles around, as a gift to help me cope with my grief.

    Two weeks later Bandit joined our family. Soon I learned that if I was going to be the pack leader, I’d better stay ahead of him. He is so smart, and good at everything, that he kept me busy as we learned many things together. When he was an adolescent, I quickly learned that I had better lead or get out of the way, thus he made me a better leader. We played ball and went for long walks every day, and completed several levels of obedience school. He passed the Canine Good Citizen test. We learned to herd livestock, including sheep, goats, and eventually cattle. We competed in agility and learned tricks in an acting class, which led to a commercial gig. Together we earned titles in obedience, Rally, agility, sheep herding, cattle herding, and versatility, and just last year trained toward a tracking title. Over the years, we earned several second place ribbons, but the only blue ribbon we ever brought home was for herding cattle. Bandit moved the cattle around the course without much help from me, except for penning them at the end. He was one proud dog that day, beaming with pride, doing what he was bred and born to do, and doing it well enough to place ahead of our instructor and her dog.

    Several times we had the opportunity to work with an entire herd of cows at a local farm. Watching this 55 pound dog move the herd across a field absolutely changed my view of life and what is possible. That can-do attitude and bullet-proof confidence goes a long way, especially when matched by ability. Once Bandit committed to moving the cattle, even a moment of hesitation could have been dangerous. He had the courage and confidence to run out in front of a cow about 30 times his weight who was breaking away from the herd. She rolled him with her nose, and he bounded right back up and bit her on the nose, turning her back to the herd. I’d been holding my breath, and as I inhaled again, relieved to see him get back up, I admired his chutzpah.

    Last spring and summer, Bandit and I spent many hours training for a tracking test. In August, when Chase was in cancer treatment, Bandit completed the Pet Partners therapy dog test with the highest marks. I thought he’d be able to substitute for Chase at our monthly library visits if Chase wasn’t feeling well. Then one September morning, the month before we had planned to take the tracking test, Bandit wasn’t able to start a track. Something was terribly wrong. We went straight to the vet and eventually he was diagnosed with multiple myeloma, a systemic cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Now Bandit is living with cancer and is expected to be on daily chemo meds for the rest of his life. The average prognosis after diagnosis is 18 months. Bandit has never been average.

     

    As we’ve gotten older, life isn’t so much about participating in activities, but just being together, out for a game of ball or a run in the fields and woods, or just hanging out together, sharing our undivided attention. Bandit continues to teach me, as he has all along. Although his body has changed as he’s lost muscle mass from the medications that manage his disease, he greets each day with enthusiasm and joy. He engages me in a game of jolly ball every chance he gets. He doesn’t like it when I get sad or upset. If I cry, he consoles me by licking my face, but if I continue to be sad, he eventually gets up and walks away. He doesn’t want to feel the sadness; he wants me to be happy.

    The roller coaster ride and financial stress of Chase’s cancer treatment followed by Bandit’s cancer diagnosis has had me focused on keeping both dogs well, and worried about my finances. We’ve been to several vet clinics many, many times over the past seven months. Along with just keeping up with daily life, I got caught up in keeping the dogs healthy, helping them deal with cancer, and doing my best for them. But then that started to get in the way. At times we had to focus on treatment, but eventually we had to get back to living. I noticed that the dogs were running and playing and enjoying every day, and I needed to get back to enjoying life along with them.

    So, again I’m trying to find a balance, to focus on being well and living in the moment, enjoying what we can do today, and not focusing so much on the illness or worrying about the future. After all, not a one of us will get out of this alive. For now, both dogs are doing well. The irony is that as well as Bandit is doing, I may not be able to afford to keep him going for as long as he wants to. The costs of the monthly medications and tests are not sustainable long-term. I want to live without regrets, and one regret would be to have to let him go before he’s ready. So as long as Bandit looks and feels well, we’re not going to the vet as often, but we’re continuing the medications, trying to focus on life.

    The dogs make me think of a conversation between Pooh and Piglet:

    “What day is it?” asked Pooh

    . “It’s today.” squeaked Piglet.

    “My favorite day.” said Pooh.

    Ironically, as we have learned to live with cancer and enjoy the time we have left, Bandit’s only littermate, his brother Baron, enjoyed his last game of ball before he passed away very suddenly and unexpectedly on January 16th. Our hearts go out to Baron’s mama Bitsey as she mourns his loss. Sometimes we get a long time to say goodbye and sometimes we don’t, which encourages us even more to seize this day.

    Remembering Baron:

     

    How do I want to spend the rest of my dog’s life with him? Playing and living in the moment, right here, right now. Because this present moment is all we really have. So today is our favorite day. Every day. Soon it will be Valentine’s Day, one day of the year when we’re all focused on love. At our house, we focus on love every day. You can too.

    Recently, when the outside temperature was well below zero, I improvised, resurrecting some of our old training and tricks and nose work to keep the dogs busy in the house. Bandit was so excited to be doing his old tricks and retrieves and nose work again. He had not forgotten a thing. That’s my boy, my inner fire! Who knows, we may even get out tracking again this spring.

    Lao Tzu said, “If you are depressed, you are living in the past. If you are anxious, you are living in the future. If you are at peace, you are living in the present.” Our dogs teach us this too. Happy Today! Happy Valentine’s Day! Share the love.

    Good nutrition, including Omega Fields Canine Shine and Omega Nuggets, has helped keep my dogs healthy while living with cancer. Follow our journey at https://www.facebook.com/jenny.pavlovic

    Next time, read about Chase and the 1st anniversary celebration of the Dog Gone Reading program at our local library.

  • Blue Chicken Eggs

    Written By Lisa Steele, Fresh Eggs Daily

    There are basically three types of chickens that lay blue eggs - Ameraucanas, Araucanas and Easter Eggers (although Cream Legbars do lay blue eggs as well and are just becoming available in the US) - but only two of the three ALWAYS lay blue eggs, so you'll want to be sure of what you're ordering if you are determined to have blue eggs.

    AMERAUCANAS

    Ameraucanas are a pure breed recognized by the APA since 1984. They were most likely originally bred from South American blue egg laying breeds but were developed and standardized in the United States. They come in eight distinct colors including, Blue, Black, White and Wheaten, which all share these distinct Ameraucana traits:

    ● Peacomb

    ● Muffs and beard

    ● Red earlobes

    ● Tail

    ● Blue legs

    ● White foot bottoms

    ● Always lay blue eggs

    ARAUCANAS

    Araucanas are also a pure breed recognized by the APA since 1976. They originated in Chile most likely and come in five colors including black, white, duckwing silver and golden. Araucanas all share these distinct Araucana traits:

    ● Peacomb

    ● Ear tufts (this gene is lethal to developing chicks if inherited by both parents)

    ● Red earlobes

    ● Rumpless (no tail)

    ● Green or willow-colored legs

    ● Yellow foot bottoms

    ● Always lay blue eggs

    EASTER EGGERS

    Easter Eggers are not a recognized breed. They are mongrels - mixed breed chickens that do possess the blue egg gene but don't fully meet the breed specifications of either Araucanas or Ameraucanas. They can come in any color or combination of colors and share these traits:

    ● Any kind of comb

    ● Muffs/beard/ear tufts or none

    ● Any color earlobes

    ● Tail or tail-less

    ● Any color legs

    ● Any color foot bottoms

    ● Can lay blue but also sometimes lay green, tan, pink or even yellow So if you want to be guaranteed blue egg layers, you will want to raise some Araucanas or Ameraucanas; but Easter Eggers are fun because you never know what color egg each will lay until she starts laying, and even identical-looking hens often lay varying shades of bluish or greenish eggs.

  • 80% of People are Now Shopping Online. Will they Find Your Horse Business?

    Written By Randi Thompson

    Social media and SEO (search engine optimization) are more important to local horse business owners than ever

    With the recent Google search changes, social media is now the best way to get your horse business on the first page of the local search engine results. Studies show that most people do not go past that first page, so it is important that your business is listed there.

    Local Marketing with a Focus on Social Media and SEO. How people will find you

    When you enter the world of social media, you will become a part of a social network. You communicate and interact with each other through the posts that you share with each other. The more likes, shares and comments your posts and website that is connected to them gets, the higher your business will show up in the newsfeeds of anyone who interacts on it, and even more importantly, the search results.

    Some of the benefits for marketing and promoting your local horse business on social media include:

    • You can attract and target horse people in your local area.

    • Social media marketing is low cost.

    • You will become an authority in your local area and in your field.

    • You create relationships with the people who become a part of your network. Those you are interacting with begin to know, like and trust you. They can become your customers.

    • You can talk directly with potential customers or create a stronger relationship with your current ones.

    Are you ready to get started?

    Begin by choosing a social media network that features local business pages. You can start a local business page on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/pages/create.php If you are on Google + (of course, since it is Google, you will get the best search results there) start with a Google local business page here: http://www.google.com/+/business/

    When you go to the business start-up page you will be asked to pick a classification. Choose “local business or place” This classification will help your business rank higher in your local area. The name you choose as the title of the business page is very important. It needs to be one that people will search for. Since they probably do not know the name of your business, you can add more words to the title. For example, Sundance Stables. Conyers, Ga. Or, Sundance Stables- Horse training, boarding.

    Next, you will be asked to upload a photo for the “cover photo”. This is the image that will appear across the top of your business page. Creative business owners use their cover photos to promote their sales or share photos that focus on their business and the customers who make it special.

    You will also need a smaller “profile image”. It is the profile image that will show up on any of posts you share. Many business owners use their logo as their profile image so that people can recognize their business.

    The “About “section” is designed so that your business name and website (if you have one) can be found in the search engine results. It is very important and often over looked by business owners who do not realize its value. With Facebook and Google+ local business pages you can also add your location, phone number, website and other information that people will be looking for in a local business.

    Once your business page is set up, make sure to add its icon, a clickable image, to your website. By doing this, your website will have more value as your activity on social media will be noticed by Google and your website will be listed higher in the search results.

    How to Find the Local People Who Are Interested In What Your Business Has to Offer

    Social media is all about connecting to people with similar interests. Your goal will want to find where they are on other social media pages, groups or communities. To find them go to the search bar on the top of the page and type in the words that people in the horse world are using. This is called “targeting”. For example, you can start with the word, horses, and see who turns up. To narrow your search down even more you can type in AQHA, dressage, horse training or whatever words are related to what you are doing in the horse business. To find out who is in your area, type in those words and add your city and state. You can also go to your competitor’s pages to see who is there and target the people who are there that you would like to get to know better. All you need to do is click on their profile image and you will be magically transported to their business page or personal profile where you can start having conversations with them on the posts they have shared. This makes them feel valued and they will often click on your profile image to see who you are and what you are doing. If they like what you are doing, they will become a part of your social network.

    How to Get People Talking About Your Business

    There is a reason it is called social media. It’s all about being social. You will be using the posts you share and the comments you add to other people’s posts to create conversations with other people. Especially those who are interested in your field or what you have to offer.

    • To start, you will need to reach out to your prospective clients, or the people with lots of connections related to what you are offering in your business, by going to their posts and business pages.

    • Add interesting comments to the posts that they are sharing. Your goal is to get them to respond to you.

    • Post from your business page when you are on other business pages so that those who are there begin to recognize your business from your profile image

    • The more people you can get to like, share or comment on your posts, the higher your business page, and as a result, your webpage, will appear in the search results. To do this, share interesting posts, photos, or videos to attract their attention.

    When do You Promote Your Business?

    Every time you post from your business page you are promoting your business. It is important to keep most of your posts, or comments, conversational, entertaining, or educational. At least 90% of your posts should be posts that people want to interact on or respond to. You can also use your posts to promote your business directly. The trick is in making that post more than just another ad that no one will look at. To do this you can ask questions or experiment with what people will respond to. Less than 10% of what you share on social media should be focused on direct advertising. You can also target local horse people directly with Facebook and Google Ads.

    Can Anyone Find You’re Business When They Do a Search?

    Your prospective customers are now searching online for what they want locally. Will they be able to find your horse business?

    Randi Thompson is internationally recognized in social media for her award winning “Horse and Rider Awareness" and “How to Market Your Horse Business”. She is a keynote speaker at national events, author, and expert legal consultant for the horse industry.

       

    How to Market Your Horse Business

    Horse and Rider Awareness

  • Colic Prevention Part 2

    Written By Dr. Kris Hiney

    This month we will finish our discussion of common causes of colic in the equine, and what you might do to prevent them. Previously we discussed the importance of having a thorough emergency plan in place in order to make a potential colic less stressful for you. We followed that with a discussion of the most common management practices which will help minimize your horse’s risk of colic. These included quality and consistency of the diet, proper hydration and parasite control to name a few. This month we will focus on some of the less common reasons horses may colic. Although less common, they are no less important for the owner to be aware of these possibilities.

    The sex of your horse may increase its likelihood of colic. Remember that colic just refers to general abdominal pain. Some mares experience discomfort relative to their estrous cycle. If your mare routinely shows mild colic at three week intervals, her ovaries may be the culprit. Normally cycling mares will ovulate every 21 to 23 days and this event can be associated with discomfort. Having a reproductive exam can also rule out if she has an ovarian dysfunction exacerbating her discomfort. If you choose to breed your mare, you must also be aware of the possibilities of colic associated with pregnancy. During gestation, the mare may experience colicky symptoms due to movement of the fetus. That does not mean that colic signs during gestation should be discounted. Follow your normal procedures of a thorough exam and consult with your veterinarian. Finally, mares are often crampy after foaling, as the uterus continues to contract in order to expel the placenta. Additionally there is a greater potential for twisted bowels post foaling due to the extra “room” in the abdominal tract. Typically these mares will experience very severe pain. As I have personally had to suffer the loss of a mare with a new foal at her side, realize that these are very real possibilities. Monitoring mares closely in the post foaling period may allow you to catch symptoms early and perhaps save her life. All in all, realize that there are risks one has to assume when choosing to breed horses.

    The lifestyle of your horse may also cause it to colic. Some horses experience far more stress due to competition or travel than other horses. Some horses dislike horse shows or competitions so intensely that they work themselves into spasmodic colic. If this is true, you really need to closely examine why your horse is experiencing stress. Are you asking too much of them? Do you warm-up or ask the horse to perform at a different level than at which you train? Is the change in environment or the close proximity of other horses too much? Try to acclimate the horse gradually to stressful scenarios. Be reasonable in your expectations of your horse. Consider how nervous or anxious you may be at shows. Isn’t it likely that your horse may also experience anxiety (albeit for perhaps different reasons)? Ultimately, it may be possible that that type of career may not be a great fit for your horse. Consider a less stressful type of competition or even re-homing the horse where it may be more comfortable. After all, competitions and events serve as recreation for most horse owners. Is it really fun if your partner is miserable?

    When traveling to events, also consider how long the horse is in the trailer. Hauling in a horse trailer for long periods of time is actually fairly tiring for the horse. Ideally you should let the horse rest every 5-6 hours. Coupling that with a change in a horse’s normal feeding schedule and reduced access to water, can set the horse up for colic. At rest stops, consider offering your horse flavored water to ensure he maintains his water intake. Begin to accustom him to the flavoring at home to ensure he actually likes it. This is especially critical in hot weather, when the temperature in the trailer can exceed the external temperature. Horses may lose a substantial amount of water through sweating that they may not have the opportunity to replenish. Horses may also be more likely to develop respiratory issues while confined in a trailer as well. While we often try to help the horse by keeping hay in front of them, open windows or sides can force dust and particulate matter into the horse’s airways. This can cause the horse to develop pleuritis, which is inflammation of the lungs. While it is a respiratory issue, the horse may still show colic-like symptoms. All in all, plan your travel with your horse’s comfort and health in mind.

    What breed your horse is may also pre-dispose him to certain gastrointestinal disorders. Arabians and Arabian crosses are more likely to develop enteroliths than other breeds of horses. Enteroliths are essentially an accumulation of mineral within the intestine which forms a rock-like object. This can range in size from very small to the size of a softball or larger. While the reason is not yet known, this risk increases when these horses are fed alfalfa. This is especially true in the California and in other parts of the Southwest. However, this does not mean that a Quarter Horse in Iowa can’t develop an enterolith, they are just less likely to do so. High alfalfa diets are thought to cause enteroliths due to the high level of magnesium and protein combining to form crystals which make up the enteroliths. Diets higher in wheat bran have high levels of phosphorous which also contribute to enterolith formation. It is also possible that feeding highly digestible, lower fiber feeds like alfalfa may reduce gastric motility, allowing crystals to form more easily. Other lifestyle factors which lower gastric motility, such as lack of exercise or low frequency of feeding, increase the risk factor of enteroliths. Even the type of bedding chosen to be used can affect a horse’s risk of developing enteroliths. Horses on straw bedding, which allows an opportunity to nibble on high fiber feedstuffs, experience less enteroliths. While many believe that adding vinegar to the horse’s diet to lower colon pH may prevent enterolith formation, this has not been proven. Ideally, lower the amount of alfalfa in the horse’s diet, feed frequently and allow ample exercise are the best management choices.

    While we can never completely ensure that our horses will never colic, following practical management strategies can lower these risks. Informed horse owners are those whose horses usually experience less health issues. Hopefully if you follow these tips from our last series you can have a colic free 2014! Until next month, enjoy some winter riding!

  • Goat Industry 2013: Why and Wherefores

    Written By Janice Spaulding , www.GoatSchool.com

    My husband and I just returned from a whirl-wind Goat School® tour that took us from our home base in Saint Albans Maine all the way across Canada to Taylor British Columbia (approximately 30 kilometers north of Dawson Creek) then back to the United States for a weekend Goat School® in Hillsboro Ohio. The entire trip took 21 days and encompassed just under 8000 miles in our 2006 GMC.

    For those who have attended Goat School® here at our Maine farm you know that our primary focus is on raising and breeding top quality disease, resistant animals, that will not only be easy keepers but also productive and profitable additions to any farm operation. At the special request of our British Columbia sponsors we changed our usual format and spent the entire first day on explaining the “why and wherefores” of the goat industry in 2013. The presentation was so well received in Canada that we incorporated it into the Hillsboro Ohio event as well. (First time Ken ever got a standing ovation for a presentation). While the information focused mainly on what is happening in Canada there are also implications as to what is taking place in the United States. Here is some of what we discussed:

    There has been a longstanding joke in the goat business, “ How do you make a million dollars selling goats?” simple answer “ you start off with 2 million dollars!”

    At first glance this might seem to be an off the shoulder remark but there is a certain amount of truth to it. In a real way it takes money to make money. It is very rare for someone to fall into a money making, get rich quick scheme. Most always it involves lots of blood, sweat and tears. That's where the 2 million dollars comes in. You must do your due diligence; you must determine your goals, you must (within reason) come up with a business plan. Business plans are not carved in stone they must have a real basis but must also be flexible enough to change as your situation changes. You must do your homework and you must research as fully as possible the market you plan to serve. It does you no good to spend all your time investigating the goat markets in Arizona if your operation is going to be located in Maryland.

    The situation in British Columbia is ideal for an expanded goat presence. The infrastructure is already in place, due to a thriving beef cattle industry. So it is a simple matter of identifying potential markets and adding goats, in proper numbers, to the existing herds.

    Why are goats and more importantly goat meat (Chevon) becoming so popular in both the United States and Canada. The answer is, changes in immigration policies in both countries.

    Legal immigrants in the United States are at the highest number ever at 37,000,000. Since the year 2000 the number of immigrants to the US has averaged 1,000,000 per year. In 2006 the percentage of the US population consisting of foreign born was at 12.5% and the Canadian rate was 19.8%.

    Who are these immigrants? They are described statistically as the “visible minority” and defined by the Employment Equity Act as “ persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in color.” The visible minority consists mainly of the following groups: Chinese, South Asian, Black, Arab, West Asian, Filipino, Southeast Asian, Latin American, Japanese, and Korean. While this may be a somewhat complex definition, for our purposes and in no way meant to be offensive, these are people whose primary dietary protein is goat meat.

    One important fact to note is that the newer immigrants, unlike their predecessors, do not look upon the idea of assimilating into the culture of their new country. They no longer come to Canada to become Canadians or to the US to become Americans. They bring their religion and cultures along with them and are looking at the freedom to be who they are and not who someone wants them to be. For someone in the business of raising meat goats this is the perfect scenario! These folks are your potential and existing customers. Religious belief and cultural traditions are a fundamental and unchanging part of the daily lives of this visible minority.

    What drives this desire for goat meat and why can't the new immigrants simply adjust their eating habits to a “beefier” diet?

    Dietary preferences are part of our being and at the very core of our existence. Prior to the 1990's the majority of immigrants to the US and Canada were of European descent. Stop and ponder this; Europe, much like the Northern US and especially Canada, is a relatively cold climate. We have ice; and what does ice give us? Ice gives us the ability to preserve and keep large pieces of protein; beef! We can process a 1200 pound beef critter and preserve it for long periods of time. We have adjusted our diets accordingly. People defined as the “visible minority” typically come from fairly warm climates; that means no ice, no refrigeration, perhaps no electricity and no ability to preserve large portions of protein. It is for that primary reason goats have for millennium been the main protein source.

    Now that we've identified our market how do we go about tapping into it you ask? Here are a few thoughts: Raising goats involves a great deal of common sense and surprisingly when it comes to livestock many folks particularly city dwellers don't have it. To successfully raise goats you need to develop a “gut instinct”. You need to pay attention to how they move, eat, rest, get from location to location and watch what they don't eat. You need to learn to think like a goat. If it's easy or cheap it's probably not going to work with goats. When you decide to become a goat herder you can forget about having days off. There are no holidays, sick days or paid vacations. Raising goats becomes your life and your lifestyle. Goats can not be successfully raised by an absentee landlord. While it may be possible to raise goats “just for the money” it likely will not be an enjoyable experience for you and probably not for the goats either.

    Choose your mentors carefully. Don't blindly do what your friends or neighbors are doing. You must educate yourself with the best information possible. Don't get advice from someone raising show goats if you're not raising show goats. They may be experts in the “show ring” but have an entirely different regimen on diet and nutrition than what you need to keep commercial meat goats thriving and healthy.

    You are not going to make much if any money for several years because of start-up costs like buying land, fencing and of course, goats. This is true in any business. If you don't have enough money to survive for up to three years without taking money out of the business you are not likely to be successful. There are no “quick fixes” in the goat business. The problems you may encounter are usually not a result of the particular breed of goat but rather your particular management style. Where you are located does make a difference. If your pastures can not support 100 goats you can not raise 100 goats. With proper management, land, facilities and nutrition you can raise any breed of goat to a healthy marketability.

    If you are interested in learning more about owning and caring for goats visit our website www.goatschool.com!

     

  • My Greatest Gifts

    Written By Jenny Pavlovic

    I don’t participate in the sales, the super shopping, running around completely stressed, many of the things we’re ‘supposed’ to do during this holiday season. I think Christmas is supposed to be about love, and I don’t know how buying stuff for people became equated with love. It’s a misguided notion that helps drive the economy, but puts a lot of stress on people.

    I avoid Black Friday like the plague, especially this year when I've taken on the excessive financial burden of vet bills for cancer treatments. I know Black Friday is intended to boost the economy. But people get so stressed out during this season (trying to buy just the right gifts) that they often forget to be kind to one another, battling for choice parking spots, fighting over stuff to buy. Let's not forget that it's supposed to be about love. Get the good deals if you must. But even though Thanksgiving is over, take a few moments each day to be thankful for what you already have.

    Which brings me to my dogs, and my deep gratitude for their presence and well-being. In July, Chase was diagnosed with colonic adenocarcinoma, with a prognosis of 4 to 6 months, even with treatment. But we caught this insidious cancer in stage one, and in October, after 21 radiation therapy treatments, a CT scan showed ‘no evidence of disease’, which felt like a miracle. We’re not completely out of the woods yet, because small seeds of cancer can escape detection by a CT scan. We will need to do another CT scan by year-end, to make sure Chase’s insides still look good.

    On the outside, Chase’s hair is growing back where he had radiation therapy. Five months after his diagnosis, he’s full of energy, running and playing each day. He’s back at the library, where the kids read to him once a month. Although I have faith in miracles and Chase’s cure wasn’t cheap, I’m still very grateful and amazed that he’s doing so well today. I don’t take him for granted.

    In September, the day after Chase sailed through a two-week follow-up appointment for his radiation therapy, Bandit was unable to work. We had been training all spring and summer toward a tracking title, and that day he just wasn’t able to start a track. Bandit is usually an intrepid worker, so I knew something was terribly wrong. Not long after, Bandit was diagnosed with multiple myeloma, a completely different kind of cancer. With daily chemo pills and other medications, the average prognosis for canine multiple myeloma patients is 18 months. But Bandit began to rapidly lose weight, losing eight of his 55 pounds in less than six weeks. I was scared that he might starve to death and I might not be able to help him. But by focusing on good nutrition (including Canine Shine and Omega Nuggets), healthy fats, and whole foods, I eventually got his weight back up. At his most recent check-up, Bandit’s weight was up to 53 from 47 pounds, his blood work was back in the normal range for the first time since his diagnosis and his urine proteins (a sign of the disease) had also moved much closer to normal. He seems to be stabilizing, which feels like another miracle. He runs and plays each day, engaging me in several games of jolly ball. We celebrated his 10th birthday on November 13th.

    Throughout these past few months, I’ve learned to live more in the moment with the dogs, not knowing how many more moments we will have together. I’ve watched them truly live each day to the fullest. They live like they’re living, not like they’re dying. And for today they are living. I know they won’t be here forever, but I wanted to give each of them the best chance to fight cancer. So far, it seems to be working. This is one of my greatest gifts.

    Several people in my life have passed on or suffered major illnesses this year. One dear family friend passed on at only 61 years old. He was out running his dogs when he had a stroke, which he never recovered from. We lost him a month later. Our memories of him, one of our greatest gifts, are of his true character and the good times we spent with him. Nothing about those great memories has to do with ‘stuff’.

    Here we are at the end of a very trying year, one that most certainly has built character. Maybe you can understand now how running around buying stuff has completely lost its point for me.

    Before our November library day, Chase had to have a bath. He didn't really want to take a bath, but when I told him he needed a bath so he could visit the kids at the library, he walked into the bathroom and climbed into the tub by himself. I kid you not. On our library day we had fun with the regular kids that we know. We also met a new little boy who loves dogs and is a great reader. He told me about his dog Sadie, who is "up there" and he pointed up to heaven.  Chase snuggled in to him and he hugged Chase for a long time after he was done reading. The reading is so important, but I’ve learned that it’s about so much more than just the reading. Another of my greatest gifts.

    Spend the time. Have the experiences. Make the memories. Forget the stuff. Live in the moment. Play. Laugh. Love.
    And let somebody else have that parking spot. You won’t regret it.

    8 State Hurricane Kate: The Journey and Legacy of a Katrina Cattle Dog is now available for Kindle at http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00GWAZFAW.
    To help pay the vet bills, I’m selling the rest of my inventory of Not Without My Dog Resource & Record books at a steep discount. I have a limited number of these hard cover, journal-style books with photo pages. They make great Christmas gifts for the dog lovers in your life, and are $15 each, plus shipping (or contact me for discounts on quantities of 10 or more). I will sign them personally if you wish. Learn more and order online at: http://www.8statekate.net/wordpress/?page_id=1542
    To donate towards cancer care: http://tinyurl.com/bentleys-aglow Thank

        

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